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所在位置:江苏成人高考网 > 江苏成考复习资料 > 专升本 > 江苏成考专升本《英语》重要考点

江苏成考专升本《英语》重要考点

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2022-09-29 15:11:16 来源:江苏成人高考网
作者:叶老师

成考专升本《英语》重要考点:

主谓一致

1.and的用法

and连接并列主语时,谓语动词用复数。例如:

Both he and I are right.

Mr. Black and Mrs. Black have a son called Tom.

但并列主语如果指的是同一人,同一事物或同一概念,谓语动词用单数,例如:

His teacher and friend is a beautiful girl.

The poet and writer has come.

当连接的是两个不可分的东西时,谓语动词用单数,例如:

Whisky and soda is my favorite drink.

Bread and butter is my favorite snack.

由and连接的并列主语中如果有each, every, no修饰时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:

Every boy and every girl has a dictionary at hand.

Each man and each woman has a dancing partner at the party.

In our country every boy and every girl has the right to receive education.

2.就近原则:

not…but…,not only … but also…,either……or,…,neither……nor…,there be…,here…

以上词语连接两个主语时,以离动词最近的主语形式为准,如:

Either Mr. Smith or his wife and sons have to face the difficulties.

There are fourteen chairs and a whiteboard in the meeting room.

经典试题:

One or more pages are missing.

The headmaster or I am going to hand out the papers.

3.就远原则:

with, along with, together with, including, except, but, besides, rather than, instead of

以上词语连接两个主语时,以离动词远的主语形式为准,如:

The library including 5,000 books was burnt down last night.

The teacher rather than the students was wrong.

4.集合名词:

Family, class, group, team, crew, committee,等

如以上名词作主语时,如果指一个整体,谓语动词就是单数;如果指成员时,谓语动词用复数,如:

The class is made up of 40 students.

5.单独的动名词,不定式,从句,时间,金钱,距离,学科,疾病,组织(专有名词)做主语时,谓语动词用单数,如;

Swimming is good for you.

Fifty dollars is too much for me.

Father gave me a dictionary as a birthday gift, which makes me excited.

Physics is really difficult for me to learn.

关系代词

关系代词who, which, that 的考点:

I know the girl. The girl works in IBM.

I know the girl who / that works in IBM.

The old man is a famous artist. We visited the old man yesterday.

The old man who /that we visited yesterday is a famous artist.

The laptop is made by DELL. I bought the laptop last week.

The laptop which / that I bought last week is made by DELL.

先行词为以下情况,关系代词必须用that:

1.先行词被形容词最高修饰:

He is the hardest-working student that I have ever taught.

2.先行词被序数词修饰:

He is the first man that finished the work on time.

3.先行词被only, just, the same, next等词修饰:

This is the only dictionary that I have at hand.

4.先行词本身为不定代词:

Is there anything that I can do for you?

5.先行词中既包含人又包含物:

We know nothing about the doctors and the hospitals that you are talking about.

6.正式用法中,先行词是动物的时候

We have to protect whales and sharks that are being threatened by death.

表示比较的方法

表示比较的方法在英语里是比较复杂的。除了形容词和副词的比较级和最高外,还有很多特定的短语和句型表示比较。对于这类考题,考生需熟记公式,记清各公式中的形容词、副词、介词、连词等的搭配,以及其比较的含义。这里就常考的一些比较形式作一个归纳。

l)平级比较:这是指在比较的过程中不用形容词或副词的比较级或最高进行比较,而是用特定句型的肯定或否定式进行比较。

as+形容词/副词+as(肯定式,意为:跟……一样)

not SO(as)+形容词/副词+as(否定式,意为:不如)

as+形容词+a/an+单数名词+as

as+many/few+可数名词+as

as much/little+不可数名词+as

the same+名词+as(与……一样)

This is as interesting a book as the other is.

这本书跟另一本一样有意思。

Helen cannot come to visit her mother so often as she hopes.

Helen不可能像她希望的那样经常看望母亲。

You can write as many words for your paper as you want.

你的文章想写多少字就写多少字。

She was born on the same day as I was.

她跟我在同一天出生。

2)带有than的比较:

more than...不仅仅,不只是

more A than B与其说是B,不如说是A(否定B,肯定A)

rather than宁愿……而不愿……

would rather+省略to的不定式+than+省略to的不定式宁愿……而不愿……

no+形容词比较级+than都不

He is more a businessman than a professor.

他更像是商人,不像教授。

The movie is more boring than interesting.

这部电影很乏味没意思。

I have no more than five dollars.

我只有5美元。

He is no taller than Jack.

他并不比Jack高。(有两个人都不高的含义)

l would rather watch TV at home than go to the cinema.

我宁愿在家看电视而不出去看电影。

She enjoys reading at home rather than travelling around.

她宁愿在家看书,不愿出游。

He paid no less than 200 dollars.

他至少付了200美元。

注意:类似的词组有prefer A to B偏爱……胜过……(肯定A,否定B);A+not+比较级+than+B A不如B。

I prefer watching movie to TV program.

我喜欢看电影而不是看电视。

He is not taller than Jack.

他没有Jack高。

3)其他比较句型:

The+比较级,the+比较级越……,越……

比较级and比较级越来越……

Is that true that the higher education you gain the better job you can get?

受的教育多就能找到更好的工作吗?

Winter comes,so it gets colder and colder.

冬天来了,所以天气越来越冷。

4)倍数的表示法:

公式:A is+倍数+名词+of B A是B的……倍

A is+倍数+as十形容词+as B A是B的……倍

A is+倍数+比较级+than B A比B大……

Your room is twice as big as mine.

你的房间是我的两倍。

This street is four times the length of that ode.

这条街是那条街的四倍长。

This bowl is twice bigger than that olle.

这个碗比那个碗大两倍。

5)修饰比较级和最高的副词:

修饰比较级:far,a bit,a lot,much,a great deal,rather,any,little等;

修饰最高:far,very,second,next,much,not quite,by no means等。

This room is a bit larger than that one.

这个房间比那个房间大一点。

I think this is the very best book I have ever read.

我认为这是我读过的最好的书了。

例题及说明:

例l:New typewriters cost about price of the second-hand ones.(2004)

A.three times the

B.a three times

C.the three times

D.three times a

说明:考查倍数。答案:A。【句子大意】新打字机的价格是二手货的三倍。

例2:l like black coffee very much.The stronger it is,.(2004)

A.I like it better

B.the more I like

C.the better I like it

D.I like it more

说明:考查比较级。答案:C。The more...,the more...越……,越……。【句子大意】我喜欢不加糖也不加奶油的咖啡,而且越浓越好。

形容词和副词

I.要点

A.形容词

1、形容词的用法

形容词是用来修饰、描绘名词的,通常在句中作定语、表语或宾补,有时还可作状语。如:

He is honest and hardworking.

I found the book interesting.

某些形容词与定冠词连用表示一类人作主语时,谓语通常用复数形式。如:

The rich and the poor live in different parts of the city.

The English like to be with their families.

多个形容词作定语修饰名词的顺序:

冠词+序数词+基数词+性质状态(描述性)+形状大小+新旧老少+颜色+国籍+材料+名词。如:the second five interesting big new red Chinese wall papers.

2、形容词比较等级的形式

(1)规则形式

一般说来,单音节词及少数双音节词在后加-er;--est来构成比较级和最高;其他双音节词及多音节词在前加more,most.如:

great-greater-greatest

busy-busier-busiest

important-more important-(the)most important

(2)不规则形式

good(well)-better-best

bad(ill)-worse-worst

many(much)-more-most

little-less-least

(3)形容词比较等级的用法

①表示两者的比较,用形容词的比较级+than.如:

He is cleverer than the other boys.

This one is more beautiful than that one.

②表示两者以上的比较,用"the+形容词最高(+名词)+of(in)…"如:

He is the cleverest boy in his class.

③表示两者是同等程度,用"as+形容词原级+as".如:

He is as tall as I.

I have as many books as you.

④越…越…

例如:The more I learn,the happier I am.

⑤You can never be too careful.越小心越好

又如:You can never praise the teacher too highly.

你怎么赞扬这个老师也不过分。

⑥I have never spent a more worrying day.

那一天是最令我担心的一天。

I have never had a better dinner.

这是我吃过的最好的一顿饭。

⑦My English is no better than yours.

我的英语和你的英语都不怎么样。

B.副词

1、副词的种类

(1)时间副词如:ago,before,already,just,now,early,late,finally,tomorrow等

(2)地点副词如:here,there,near,around,in,out,up,down,back,away,outside等。

(3)方式副词如:carefully,angrily,badly,calmly,loudly,quickly,politely,nervously等。

(4)程度副词如:almost,nearly,much,greatly,a bit,a little,hardly,so,very等。

2、副词比较等级的用法

其用法与形容词相似,只是副词最高前可省略定冠词。如:

Of all the boys he sings(the)most beautifully.

We must work harder.

3、某些副词在用法上的区别

(1)already,yet,still

already表示某事物已经发生,主要用于肯定句;yet表示期待某事发生,主要用于否定句和疑问句;still表示某事还在进行,主要用于肯定句和疑问句,有时也可用于否定句。如:

We've already watched that film.

I haven't finished my homework yet.

He still works until late every night.

(2)too,as well,also,either

too,as well和also用于肯定句和疑问句,too和as well多用于口语,一般放在句末,而also多用于书面语,一般放在句中与动词连用。either用于否定句和否定的疑问句,往往放在句末。如:He went there too.

He didn't go there either.

I like you as well.

I also went there.

(3)hard,hardly

hardly意为"几乎"与hard在词义上完全不同。如:

I work hard every day.

I can hardly remember that.

(4)late,lately

lately意为"最近、近来",late意为"晚、迟"。如:

He never comes late.

Have you been to the museum lately?

例1 Tom's father thinks he is already

A high enough B tall enough

C enough high C enough tall

解析:该题正确答案是B。修饰人高用tall,而建筑物的高用high,并且enough修饰形容词要放在形容词后面。因此该题选B。

例2 the worse I seem to be.

A When I take more medicine

B The more medicine I take

C Taking more of the medicine

D More medicine taken

解析:该题正确答案为B。"the+形容词比较级+…,the+形容词比较级+…"意为越…,越…。该句意为:吃的药越多,我的病越是加重。

例3"I haven't been to London yet".

"I haven't been there ".

A too B also C either D neither

解析:该题正确答案为C。A和B都用于肯定句中。D-neither本身意为否定"两者都不",而C-either则用于否定句中,意为"也"。

例4 Mr Smith was moved at the news.

A deep B deeply C very deep D quite deeply

解析:该题正确答案为B。A.deep用于副词时,修饰具体的深,如dig deep,而B-deeply则修饰表示感情色彩的词,如该题为deeply moved.另如deeply regret等。而D-quite和deeply均为副词,不能互相修饰。

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